RDC : découper pour gouverner Reviewed by Momizat on . Pour ses détracteurs - et ils sont nombreux -, la cause est entendue : le nouveau découpage de la RDC en 26 provinces censé entrer en vigueur le 30 juin est une Pour ses détracteurs - et ils sont nombreux -, la cause est entendue : le nouveau découpage de la RDC en 26 provinces censé entrer en vigueur le 30 juin est une Rating: 0

RDC : découper pour gouverner

rdcPour ses détracteurs – et ils sont nombreux -, la cause est entendue : le nouveau découpage de la RDC en 26 provinces censé entrer en vigueur le 30 juin est une mauvaise action politique

Précipitée, improvisée et par-dessus tout suspecte car destinée essentiellement à réduire, si ce n’est annihiler, l’influence grandissante d’une poignée de politiciens locaux – et, par conséquent, à y rétablir celle du président Kabila – dans cet État dans l’État qu’était devenue la plus riche de toutes : le Katanga. Diviser pour mieux régner, en quelque sorte, voilà à quoi se résumerait le démembrement de l’ex-Shaba de Mobutu en quatre baronnies distinctes. Développé non sans arguments dans les pages qui suivent, ce réquisitoire mérite cependant d’être fortement nuancé.

Techniquement, ce découpage n’est pas le premier. La RD Congo en a déjà connu quatre depuis 1924, passant de 4 à 6 provinces en 1935, à 21 en 1963, puis à 8 en 1966 et, enfin, à 11 « régions » en 1988 (qui reprirent le nom de « provinces » en 1997). La Conférence nationale souveraine du début des années 1990 avait même un moment caressé une option à… 46 provinces, avant de l’abandonner. À l’époque, comme lors de la commission constitutionnelle de Luluabourg, en 1964, sous la houlette du tandem Kasavubu-Tshombé, l’idée était la même qu’aujourd’hui : déléguer le pouvoir décisionnel au pays profond et faciliter la participation des populations rurales à la gouvernance du pays.

Pas de surprise

Rien de très nouveau sous le soleil, donc. Encore moins d’effet de surprise : l’actuel découpage figure en toutes lettres dans la Constitution adoptée par référendum en décembre 2005, il y a près de dix ans, et les circonscriptions électorales des sénateurs élus en 2007 sont directement issues des 26 nouvelles provinces, lesquelles existent donc déjà de jure si ce n’est de facto.

Enfin, l’accélération du programme de décentralisation est l’une des recommandations clés de l’accord-cadre d’Addis-Abeba de février 2013, dont toute la classe politique congolaise réclame l’application. Quant au déficit d’infrastructures d’accueil pour les nouvelles autorités provinciales, c’est à la fois un problème réel et un faux problème. Lors du redécoupage du Kivu en trois entités il y a vingt-sept ans, la même question s’était posée, et le mouvement s’est, depuis, fait en marchant.

Reste l’argument de fond, celui qui veut que le Katanga et son très emblématique ex-gouverneur Moïse Katumbi soient la cible unique et inavouée de ce grand déménagement. Lequel, soit dit en passant, concerne d’autres poids lourds comme l’Équateur, la Province-Orientale, les deux Kasaïs et le Bandundu, sans pour autant déclencher les mêmes cris d’orfraie.

S’il n’est pas exclu, loin de là, que la mise en place du découpage serve les intérêts de ceux pour qui Katumbi tendait à devenir une sorte d’ovni incontrôlable – saisir les opportunités n’est pas la moindre des manœuvres en politique -, prétendre que le ver était dans le fruit dès l’origine ne résiste pas à l’examen des faits. En décembre 2005, lors du référendum constitutionnel approuvé par 84 % des Congolais et décisif pour l’adoption du projet des 26 provinces, Moïse Katumbi fut l’un des fervents propagandistes du « oui », et nul n’imaginait encore qu’il allait être, treize mois plus tard, élu gouverneur. Ici comme ailleurs, l’Histoire ne repasse jamais les mêmes plats…

 

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